Fabrication of Sb-doped p-type ZnO Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition
In this work, antimony (Sb)-doped p-type ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition, with Sb2O3 used as the dopant source. The effects of ambient gas or growth temperature on the fabrication process were investigated. The nitrogen ambient was found to be essential to achieve the p-type conduction. The Hall-effect measurements at room temperature indicated that the ZnO thin films doped with 3 at.% Sb and grown at 600 °C under N2 atmosphere exhibited p-type behavior with a hole concentration of 1.17×1017 cm−3, hole mobility of 0.63 cm2/V·s, and resistivity of 84.51 Ω·cm. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed good crystallization and homogenous surface morphology of the ZnO:Sb thin films. The optical transmission spectrum of the ZnO:Sb thin films indicated that the energy band gap value was around 2.9 eV. Post-growth annealing at 650 oC converted the p-type conduction to n-type. This result implied that Sb-doping and annealing treatment were dominant factors determining native and extrinsic defects in the ZnO thin films, and thus controlling their electrical conductivity properties.