Atlas Journal of Plant Biology <p>Atlas Journal of Plant Biology is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research articles, short communications, and review articles in all fields of Plant Biology.</p> Atlas Publishing, LLC en-US Atlas Journal of Plant Biology 1949-1379 In Vitro Shoot Regeneration and Development of Microcorms of Moroccan Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) <p>Crocus sativus L. is a male sterile vegetatively propagated plant. Its flower produces stigmas that when dried, constitute the source of a spice commonly known as Saffron. Slow vegetative propagation and diseases limit the production and the development of saffron. “In vitro” culture could be an effective method to overcome these limitations by improving the quantity and the quality of the planting materials. In this work, Crocus sativus L. segments corms of cultivar from the region of Taliouine (Southeast of Morocco) were used for the propagation through indirect organogenesis. To optimize the in vitro growth conditions, we have used the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS medium), supplemented with 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) and with 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) at combination of various concentrations. Our results showed the formation of callus in 85.42% of explants that grow in a culture medium supplemented with 2,4-D combined with BAP, at a concentration of 1mg/l each. In addition, we observed that increasing the concentration of BAP in the culture medium to 1.5mg/l improved the rate of shoots initiation (0.81). In the meantime, we noted that a combination of BAP (8mg/l) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 2mg/l) has significantly improved the rate of the formation of advanced shoots (6.65). Finally, the shoots that developed were transferred to an induction medium of roots and corms. As a result, we observed that 50% of shoots tested in ½ MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D and of BAP (1 mg/l each) and 5% sucrose, formed corms. Our study provides a first database for in vitro culture of Moroccan saffron cultivars.</p> Khalid Lagram Mohamed Ben El Caid Souad El Aaouam Mohamed Lachheb Abdelhamid El Mousadik Mohammed Amine Serghini Copyright (c) 2017 Atlas Journal of Plant Biology 2017-06-11 2017-06-11 50 55 10.5147/ajpb.v0i0.113 Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Temperature Affect Seed Composition, Mineral Nutrition, and 15N and 13C Dynamics in Soybean Genotypes under Controlled Environments <p>The seed nutrition of crops is affected by global climate changes due to elevated CO2 and temperatures. Information on the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed nutrition is very limited in spite of its importance in seed quality and food security. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral nutrition in two soybean cultivars under controlled environments. The treatments were ambient CO2 concentrations (360 μmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 concentration (700 μmol mol-1) as well as normal temperature (26/16°C) and elevated temperature (45/35°C). Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions until the R5 stage, and then, transferred to growth chambers until full maturity (R8). Elevated temperature or a combination of elevated temperature and elevated CO2 resulted in a decrease in seed protein and linolenic acid concentrations and an increase in oil and oleic acid in cultivars Williams 82 (MGIII) and Hutcheson (MG V). Seed sucrose, glucose, and fructose decreased, whereas raffinose and stachyose remained relatively stable. Minerals also decreased under elevated CO2 and temperature. Among those that decreased were N, P, K, Zn, Fe, and B. Natural abundance of 15N and 13C isotopes was altered only under high temperature, regardless of CO2 concentration, indicating that changes in nitrogen and carbon metabolism occurred at elevated temperature. The increase in oil and oleic acid and decrease in linolenic acid are desirable, as high oleic acid and low linolenic acid contribute to the stability and longer shelf-life of oil. The combination of low protein and high oil was due to the inverse relationship between them. This study showed that seed composition and seed mineral nutrients can be affected by elevated temperature alone or elevated CO2 and temperature. This information is beneficial for selecting varieties with high seed nutritional qualities and efficient mineral nutrient use and uptake, traits that are related to seed production, seed quality, and food security. Also, it provides further knowledge on the effect of climate change on seed quality.</p> Nacer Bellaloui Yanbo Hu Alemu Mengistu Hamed K. Abbas My Abdelmajid Kassem Mulualem Tigabu Copyright (c) 2017 Atlas Journal of Plant Biology 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 56 65 10.5147/ajpb.v0i0.114 Grain Chemical Composition as Affected by Genetic Backgrounds and Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Inoculation in Corn Hybrids <p>Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites commonly found in corn and known to cause health issues to human and animals. Information on the relationship between corn grain inoculated with mycotoxins and grain nutrients (protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and amino acids) in corn hybrids, especially stacked-gene hybrids is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional advantage of stacked-gene hybrids (Stgene) over non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO) corn or glyphosate-resistant corn (RR). The experiment was conducted in two locations (clay and sandy soils) in 2011, irrigated, and inoculated with toxigenic Aspergillus flavus using four hybrids of stacked-gene, four of RR, and two non-GMO (conventional). Non-inoculated plots were used as control. The results showed that stacked-gene hybrids had no observable nutritional advantage over RR or non-GMO as all hybrid classes accumulated adequate nutrients in their grains; this effect could be due to adequate concentrations of nutrients in the soil. Higher levels of grain protein, carbohydrates (glucose, reducing sugars, and starch), oleic acid, total amino acids, and some minerals were observed under inoculated conditions in clay and sandy soils indicated a possible osmotic adjustment role of these compounds as stress indicators and osmoprotectants under inoculated conditions. Grain nutrients in clay soil were higher than those in sandy soils; nutrient differences could be due to sandy soil possibly suffering drier conditions, especially inoculated soil, reducing nutrient uptake and nutrients mobility to the grain. This study provides advanced knowledge on the relationship between grain nutrients and mycotoxins in corn hybrids. It is also useful to the corn breeders to understand the responses of grain nutrients to fungal diseases in corn hybrids.</p> Nacer Bellaloui Hamed K. Abbas H. Arnold Bruns Alemu Mengistu Copyright (c) 2017 Atlas Journal of Plant Biology 2017-06-12 2017-06-12 66 76 10.5147/ajpb.v0i0.115