The Current Status and Prospect of After-School Tutoring Organizations in Primary and Secondary Education in China


  • Chunxia Zhu Faculty of Education, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Rd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518060,China
  • Aixia Liu Shenzhen Senior High School, Chuntian Rd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518040, China
  • Li Li College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, 1066 Xueyuan Rd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China



Tutoring of primary and secondary education, Off-campus tutoring organization, Shadowing education


Since the implementation of the double-reduction policy, the attention of society to the off-campus tutoring service is increasing, and at the meantime, the research in this field is experiencing a rapid growth. Through literature search and analysis, our results showed that the current hot topics in the field were both the research of theoretical development and empirical implementation, respectively. Theoretical research focused on the connotation, evolution, enlightenment, and historical process of the core concepts; and empirical research focused on the "problem-solution" type of approaches, multi-perspective analysis, and transformational path analysis under the double-reduction policy, etc. In conclusion, we suggest paying more attention to the comprehensive study of pedagogy and other disciplines, focusing on rural areas, and concentrating on the combination of quality of research methodology from the perspective of future research.


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2023-06-09 — Updated on 2023-06-14